Campari Bitter, Sesto San Giovani, Milan (Lombardy)
1980’s, 700ml, 25% ABV
The most recognized version of Bitters di Torino Gaspare Campari’s (1828-1882) bitter spans a 156 year history making it one of the longest continually produced bitters in the world. While by no means the first person to make the style, others out of Torino such as Canetta and Graubardt pre-dated him, he was the first to codify and market it beyond small home and pharmacy production.
Inspired by the 8th century beverage alkermez (still produced today but normally destined for pastry applications, such as zuppa inglese, due to its sweetness and intense floral notes.) Gaspare crafted a much drier and bitter style which he first began to sell under the name Bitter all’Uso d’Holanda in 1840.
Like alkermez Campari’s bitter took advantage of cochineal, or kermes, a small parasitic insect from which the drink derives its color. He was far more restrained in the use of vanilla, cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg instead focusing on myrtle-leaved orange (citrus myrtifolia) and the bittering agent cascarilla (croton eluteria). Altogether the bitter contained more than 60 some herbs, roots and spices.
Southern entrance to the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II arcade between the Palazzo Marino and Duomo in Milan. Built between 1865 and 1877 under the design and guidance of Giuseppe Mengoni it became the birth place of the “Camparino” (Campari Bar), notice the signs bordering the entrance in and around 1915.
By 1860 he had changed the name of his bitters to Campari, relocated to Milan and eventually opened his iconic cafe in the newly constructed Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II arcade in 1865. The drink was rumored to have grown in popularity so fast that it was necessary for him to cellar carbonated water underneath the cafe as a more economical way to craft Campari and soda, the preferred method of consumption.
Gaspare passed away in 1882 leaving his sons Davide and Guido to take over the cafe and the production of Campari. With this second generation came the first construction of offsite production, in 1904, allowing them to produce on a scale allowing export to the rest of Europe.
Gaspare Campari in September of 1877. He moved into the Vittorio Emauele II Gallery where he sets up is home, his restaurant and a wine shop on the corner looking towards Piazza Duomo. His son, Davide Campari, later becomes the first citizen of Milan to be born in the Gallery. A lesser known fact is still that fact that he was tending bar by 14 in his home town of Cassolnovo.
Campari’s initial plant, opening in 1905, with in the neighborhood of Sesto San Giovanni in northwestern Milan. Directly situated on the train lines running north from the stations of Milano Centrale and Milano Greco Pirelli, essential when Davide Campari began to aggressively export the brand.
Gaspare Campari (pictured second from the right) and family, including his son Davide, who would follow in his foot steps (pictured fifth from the left).
The next 100 plus years were ones of exponential growth and success. Davide debuted new brands including Campari Cordial and a bottled Campari and soda in 1932. Along with these innovations Campari launched one of the most impressive post-war advertising campaigns ever devised featuring some of Italy’s favorite film stars including David Niven, Humphrey Bogart and Nino Manfredi. By the 1980’s the now Groupo Campari was a family powerhouse and began to branch into ownership of additional spirits labels. Today that includes Appelton Rum, Wild Turkey Whiskey, Skyy Vodka to name a few.
The 2000’s marked the beginning of change for this legendary bitter and in many ways it was victimized by its own success. In an effort to increase volume of production and lower their cost of goods production of Campari was moved to the massive, new, 200,000 square meter facility in the southern Piedmonte town Novi Liqure. Able to produce over 160 million bottles a year, employing nearly 130 people Groupo Campari had spent some 51.7 million euro on the property.
Eager to jump-start their returns additional changes were made cumulating in 2007 with the removal of cochineal in favor of artificial coloring, the lowering of the ABV to 24% and the use of liquid extracts as opposed to the solids that the flavor was originally based around. Bottles that were produced at the original plant in Sesto San Giovanni and in accordance with Gaspare’s original recipe are something truly special. Broader and deeper in flavor, at its original ABV and with out the one dimensional bitters that some connoisseurs associate with the current product.